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        Concepts and                                 2  Chapter 1    Computer Programming and the Workplace

        Terminology of a                                            1.1  Concepts and Terminology of a Computer
        Computer                                               Point  The central theme of this book is to learn how to solve problems by writing a
                                                     programming    This book is about programming. So, what is programming? The term programming
                                                     program        means to create (or develop) software, which is also called a program. In basic
                                                                    terms, software contains the instructions that tell a computer—or a computerized
        PREPARE AND ENGAGE                                          device—what to do.
                                                                     Software is all around you, even in devices that you might not think would
        Q   Have students read this lesson.                         need it. Of course, you expect to find and use software on a personal computer,
                                                                    but software also plays a role in running airplanes, cars, cell phones, and even
        Q   For the As You Read activity,                           toasters. On a personal computer, you use word processors to write documents,
                                                                    Web browsers to explore the Internet, and e-mail programs to send and receive
           show students how to create a                            messages. These programs are all examples of software. Software  developers cre-
           6-tab window foldable to show             programming languages  ate software with the help of powerful tools called programming languages.
                                                                     This book teaches you how to create programs by using the Java programming
           the major hardware components                            language. There are many programming languages, some of which are decades
                                                                    old. Each language was invented for a specific purpose—to build on the strengths
           of a computer. (Use Figure 1.1 in                        of a previous language, for example, or to give the programmer a new and unique
           the student text.) Prompt students                       set of tools. Knowing that there are so many  programming languages available, it
                                                                    would be natural for you to wonder which one is best. But, in truth, there is no
           to cut out the foldable and glue it                      “best” language. Each one has its own strengths and weaknesses. Experienced pro-
                                                                    grammers know that one language might work well in some  situations, whereas
           into their notebook to use later as                      a different language may be more appropriate in other situations. For this reason,
           a study guide. Encourage them to                         seasoned programmers try to master as many different programming languages
                                                                    as they can, giving them access to a vast arsenal of software-development tools.
           use color and drawings for a deeper                       If you learn to program using one language, you should find it easy to pick up
                                                                    other  languages. The key is to learn how to solve problems using a programming
                                                                    approach. That is the main theme of this book.
                                                                     You are about to begin an exciting journey: learning how to program. At the
                                                                    outset, it is helpful to review computer basics, programs, and operating systems.
                                                                 Key  What Is a Computer?
                                                               Point  A computer is an electronic device that stores and processes data.
                                                     hardware       A computer includes both hardware and software. In general, hardware comprises
                                                     software       the  visible, physical elements of the computer, and software provides the invisible
                                                                    instructions that  control the hardware and make it perform specific tasks. Know-
                                                                    ing computer hardware isn’t essential to learning a programming language, but it
                                                                    can help you better understand the effects that a program’s instructions have on
                                                                    the computer and its components. This section introduces computer hardware
                                                                    components and their functions.
                                                                     A computer consists of the following major hardware components (Figure 1.1):
                                                                       Q     A central processing unit (CPU)
                                                                       Q     Memory (main memory)
                                                                       Q     Storage devices (such as disks and CDs)

        2   CHAPTER 1     Q   Computer Programming and the Workplace
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